Cornea and External Disease: Diagnosing and treating diseases related to the cornea, sclera and eyelids are the primary focus of this specialty. Training within this specialty includes doing corneal transplant surgery and other types of corneal surgery.
Glaucoma: This specialty concentrates on medical and surgical treatment of glaucoma and other age related vision disorders that can create optic nerve damage through increased ocular pressure.
Neuro-ophthalmology: A nonsurgical specialty focused on diseases affecting the optic nerve and visual pathways. It deals with the relationship between neurologic and ophthalmic diseases and can be combined with eye and orbital surgery.
Ophthalmic Pathology: An ophthalmic pathologist examines tissue samples culled from the eye and adnexa in helping to diagnose eye diseases and vision problems.
Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery: With this specialty, the focus is on reconstructive surgery in facial and orbital areas. It can include complex surgeries on eyelids, orbits, certain facial bones, and the lacrimal system.
Pediatric Ophthalmology: This specialty focuses on dealing with vision problems and eye diseases affecting children. Pediatric ophthalmologists offer medical and surgical treatment of genetic ocular abnormalities and serious eye diseases before a patient reaches adulthood.
Vitreoretinal Diseases: Medical and surgical treatment of diseases affecting the retina and vitreous are the focus of this specialty. These diseases can be genetic and systemic in origin. A vitreoretinal ophthalmologist uses tools like ultrasound fluorescein, angiography and electrophysiology to make a diagnosis. From there, they treat vitreoretinal diseases through using such procedures as laser therapy, cryotherapy, retinal detachment surgery and vitrectomy.